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家庭美术治疗|创建原生家庭系统的家谱图的原则

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Family of Origin Systems

     Guidelines for

Constructing Genograms

          Paul David, Ph.D

             A family genogram need to be completed for this assignment that covers your

childhood through your adolescent years.  This genogram should consist of the  following  (1) a generational map of your family of origin, (2) a delineation of key family patterns in

terms of the relationships, roles, life events, and multigenerational trends that significantly affected you and your family of  origin.

Family Genogram

                 A genogram is a family map that represents how different family members are

biologically and legally related to one another from one generation to the next. Minimally,

this family map should depict three generations--you and, if applicable, your siblings;   

your parents and, if applicable, any step-parents; and any grandparents and/or step­

grandparents. In terms of demographic information, you need to minimally  include the first names, dates of birth, ethnicity, dates of marriage, dates of death, and, if appropriate,

the dates of divorce and/or separation for all of the significant family members you designate. However, you do not have to specify all of the information for less significant

family members, like cousins, if you do not wish to do so.  The genogram on Freud"s  family diagrammed by McGoldrick et al. (1999) serves as a good example for making

these determinations.

Family Patterns

           Once the structure of the genogram is depicted with its vital statistics about

family members, you now need to add information about your family in terms of

relationships, roles, critical events, and multigenerational  patterns.

         Relationships. Designation of relationships  involves the depiction  of the fusion

and conflict patterns in the family genogram. While most family relationships involve

some degree of fusion and conflict, the designation of these patterns in a genogram should

be limited only to those that were persistent and significant problems in your family. To

identify these patterns, using the different relationship lines designated by McGoldrick et

al. (1999), first start with your parent"s relationship and then take a look at their  

relationship with you and, if applicable, any of your siblings. Next do the same thing for

your grandparents" relationships and their relationships with your parents and, if  

applicable, their siblings. Again, be sure to only highlight those relationships that were

persistent and significant problems  in your family.

              Childhood Roles. In addition to patterns of relating, take a look at the different

roles you might have played in your family of origin. Roles are the relatively fixed

patterns of behavior that you consciously and unconsciously  assumed in attempting   to

accommodate to the various needs and demands that your family placed on you. Typical

positions that children can assume in their family of origin are parental, marital,

dependent, rejected, rule breaker, companionate, and delegate roles. These roles

descriptions were developed by Napier (1988) and are explained in more detail in a class handout called "Family  Structure and Role Patterns Questionnaire." For now just

describe in your own words any particular role you believe you played in your family of

origin

        Critical Events. This section involves listing the important transitions,

relationship shifts, migrations, loses, and successes that occurred during the

developmental period(s) covered by your genogram. These critical events provide the

broad historical context to your development and a chronological view of your family

history.  As such, the delineation of this history should not be strictly limited to just

those events that directly involved you. Rather, it should consist of all those critical

events that had a major impact on both you and your family as a whole. Because the

recording and memory of family events becomes more dispersed over time, it is

understandable that you will cite less events at the beginning than at the middle and end of

the family history.

           Multigenerational  Patterns.   Identify  any particular  style of functioning

(whether adaptive or maladaptive)  or the  ways  of dealing  with problems  (whether healthy

or unhealthy) that  seem to be passed  down from one generation  to the next.   Remember

that this transmission does not necessarily occur in linear fashion. For instance, alcoholic

parents may have children who become teetotalers, and then their children may again

become alcoholic.   Hence, the multigenerational  pattern in this situation is one

characterized by  an ongoing  struggle with alcohol

 

  Family Research

Obtaining some of the above information may require that you consult with

different family members. As long as you can do this without generating or regenerating

any family conflict, feel free to draw on and utilize these family resources as much as you

can. However, avoid inquiring about these matters if they have a strong likelihood of

stressing family relationships

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